Metal, a permanent material
Because they are permanent materials, aluminium and steel can make a real contribution to closing the material loop and supporting the development of the circular economy, if the right policy framework is in place.
A permanent material is a material whose inherent properties do not change during use and despite repeated recycling into new products. Its recycling does not necessarily require the addition of primary material or additives to enable the basic material function and properties. Non-permanent materials, on the other hand, spiral to end of life.